Where are there trade-offs and synergies between production goals and the provision of other ecosystem services. While the various drivers of forest transition appear to be well understood, there is recognition that a wide range of conditions may inhibit the innovative responses, resulting in the delay of rehabilitation efforts or continued degradation [ 12 ].
This is true for IFS, which is not a single piece of innovation, but a combination of technical solutions in agriculture to address local problems and quickly re-prioritise them. Spotlight The sustainable palm oil village Smallholders working on family plots are an important part of palm oil production.
A significant increase in tree cover can be associated with the expansion of agroforestry systems, fruit orchards, woodlots, gardens, hedgerows, and secondary successions on abandoned pastures or fallows that are sometimes enriched with valuable species. Figure 1 describes the SL framework that can assess environmental as well as socioeconomic conditions in terms of these five types of capital, applied mostly at the individual or household level to promote community-based improvements.
We focus on the challenge of providing food, water and energy for a growing population, while halting and reversing land degradation that threatens future productivity. But we know that the status quo is not sustainable and that more change at a systems level is needed.
The hygiene status of the floor, mixing cattle of different age groups and categories as well as different farm animal species were assessed through direct observation by the investigator during farm visits.
Therefore, it is crucial to meet this growing demand for food without negatively affecting ecological sustainability and social equitability, particularly in developing regions.
The Indonesian government has used oil palm as a major vehicle for rural socio-economic improvement Potter and Lee ; Zen et al. The assessment methods used have thus been diverse and these also include the cost benefit analysis, economic surplus approach, comprehensive approach, livelihood approach and various combinations of these methods.
Alongside sustainable palm cultivation, the cooperative involves an integrated livestock farm and a fish farm, so that palm by-products such as fronds are used in feed for livestock, cow manure is used for fertiliser for the oil palms, and palm oil mill effluent is used in fish feed.
Of the smallholder units that had cubicles, the animal to cubicle ratio was 1: These signs included traumatic lesions such as hair loss, swellings, ulcerations and scars on the skin particularly on the neck, the carpus, the hocks and on the bony prominences.
Details of the cubicle housing system in the farms evaluated for welfare of dairy cattle in the smallholder production systems in Nairobi and its environs July — October Key research questions are: On plantations, workers invest almost half of their Premium in community services such as housing, education and healthcare.
Hence, a farmer-centric research and extension system must be in place to develop appropriate IFS models followed by its farm-specific refinement. La Rovere et al. In this article, we attempted to capture our cumulative ideas, outlined a modified model and proposed a process of integration by having feedback from the stakeholders across different regions.
The Research in Development model Clusters of Activities 1 Livelihood systems analysis, synthesis and scaling This cluster develops and applies approaches, methods and tools aimed at identifying opportunities for change, trade-offs and negotiation between agricultural, nonagricultural elements and forest elements of rural livelihoods.
On tea estates, the challenges for workers range from notoriously low wages, long working hours and a difficult relationship with estate management. The system needs to change. We know that the challenges faced by smallholders are complex and diverse, often requiring holistic solutions.
This user acceptance test proved very successful, reaching nearly 22, farmers over three weeks via social networking. What are the political and institutional conditions that allow for household and smallholder success in terms of livelihood improvements, including ways to scale-up the results from interventions.
They also help us promote human rights and empower womenand improve access to better hygiene and sanitation. For those households with teak plantations, additional information was sought regarding their tree portfolio and knowledge of silvicultural practices.
World health organization WHOThe programme enabled 86, lead farmers, including around 42, women, to access initiatives aiming to improve their agricultural practices. The large number of small farms involved in global agricultural development, and their inherent capacity to enhance farm-level sustainability, provides a pragmatic foundation for studying IFS in developing nations.
Lambin and Meyfroidt [ 21 ] have classified the drivers of land-use transitions into two types: This in turn can drive deforestation and loss of biodiversity as they seek new land to cultivate. The challenges include non-adoption of improved technologies, weak linkages and interaction between stakeholders, poor infrastructure and unfair competition from open market operations, among others Kirsten, et.
Overall, the highest incidence of workers living with their families below the poverty line is associated with employment in agriculture Davis et al.
The main evidence of poor welfare was injuries on the animals. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UnitedNations.
Smallholder farmers play an important role in palm oil production. Moreover, the model should be grounded on the priorities of the farm family and their participation in IFS planning.
Zimbabwe  1 Introduction. Importance and structure of the agricultural sector. Agriculture is the backbone of Zimbabwe’s economy inasmuch as Zimbabweans remain largely a rural people who derive their livelihood from agriculture and other related rural economic activities.
· productivity of the small holders agricultural as well as the overall livelihood of the farming communities. • Evaluate the impact of selected agricultural water management technologies on Impacts of Improving Water Management of Smallholder Agriculture in the Upper tsfutbol.com · Improved livelihoods for smallholder farmers Mapping and assessing the potential for statistics, and combines them with national livelihood maps impact on rural livelihoods.
4. Estimate the potential number of beneficiaries, tsfutbol.com livelihood impacts and the evident enthusiasm of farmers for oil palm. We present information from assessment of the livelihood outcomes of oil palm agri- culture at several locations in Indonesia.
· This paper examines the economics of groundwater irrigation and its impact on livelihood of smallholder farmers in Eastern Ethiopia. The results indicate that groundwater technologies are financially viable at 8, and percent discount tsfutbol.com://tsfutbol.com Improved livelihoods for smallholder farmers COUNTRY INVESTMENT BRIEF Mapping and assessing the potential for to be most viable and have greatest impact, • discussing AWM solutions and project findings with and combines them with national livelihood maps which have been established through an in-depth consultation process to identify.The livelihood impact of the smallholder